Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists at standard conditions as a highly toxic, pale yellow diatomic gas. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive, as it reacts with all other elements except for argon, neon, See more · In gaseous state, fluorine is a light pale-yellow color gas, while in a liquid state it is a bright yellow color gas. Atomic mass of fluorine is u, which makes it the lightest AdFind Your Special Someone Online. Choose the Right Dating Site & Start Now! Find Out Which Dating Sites are Easiest to Use & Most Effective. Find a Date Now! AdFind Love With the Help Of Top 5 Dating Sites. Make a Year to Remember! Online Dating Has Already Changed The Lives of Millions of People. Join blogger.com has been visited by 10K+ users in the past monthMillions of Users · Dating Sites Comparison · Customer Support · Meet Singles Like YouService catalog: Video Chat, See Profiles, Find Singles Nearby, Match with Locals AdEveryone Knows Someone Who's Met Online. Join Here, Browse For Free. Everyone Know Someone Who's Met Online. Start Now and Browse for blogger.com has been visited by 10K+ users in the past month ... read more
Relative supply risk 6. Young's modulus A measure of the stiffness of a substance. Shear modulus A measure of how difficult it is to deform a material. Bulk modulus A measure of how difficult it is to compress a substance. Vapour pressure A measure of the propensity of a substance to evaporate.
Pressure and temperature data — advanced. Listen to Fluorine Podcast Transcript :. You're listening to Chemistry in its element brought to you by Chemistry World , the magazine of the Royal Society of Chemistry. The year old technician spilled only a few hundred milliliters or so in his lap during a routine palaeontology experiment.
He took the normal precaution in such situations, quickly dowsing himself with water from a laboratory hose, and even plunged into a nearby swimming pool while the paramedics were en route. But a week later, doctors removed a leg, and a week after that, he was dead. The culprit: hydrofluoric acid colloquially known as HF , and the unfortunate man was not its first victim. Unlike its close relatives, hydrochloric and hydrobromic acid, HF is a weak acid.
This, coupled with its small molecular size, allows it to penetrate the skin and migrate rapidly towards the deeper tissue layers. Once past the epidermis, HF starts to dissociate, unleashing the highly-reactive fluoride ion. Free fluoride binds tightly to both calcium and magnesium, forming insoluble salts which precipitate into the surrounding tissues. Robbed of their co-factors, critical metabolic enzymes can no longer function, cells begin to die, tissues to liquefy and bone to corrode away.
And if calcium loss is rapid enough, muscles such as the heart stop working. Burns with concentrated HF involving as little as 2. HF has a long history of destructive behaviour, claiming the lives of several chemists in the s, including the Belgian Paulin Louyet, and the Frenchman Jérôme Nicklès.
These brave scientists were battling to be the first to isolate elemental fluorine F 2 from its various compounds, using electrolysis. However, it was Nicklès' countrymen, Henri Moissan, who succeeded in To achieve this feat, Moissan not only had to contend with HF - the preferred electrolyte in such experiments - but fluorine itself, a violently reactive gas. His key innovation was to construct an apparatus out of platinum, one of the few metals capable of resisting attack, while cooling the electrolytic solution down to °C to limit corrosion.
Moissan's feat earned him the Nobel Prize in chemistry, but the celebration was short-lived. Another victim of fluorine's toxic effects, he died only two months later. Yet Moissan's method lived on, and is used today to produce multi-ton quantities of fluorine from its ore fluorspar. The top-selling anti-depressant Prozac, the cholesterol-lowering drug Lipitor, and the antibacterial Cipro, all have fluorine to thank for their success.
How is this possible? Because the flip side of fluorine's extreme reactivity is the strength of the bonds it forms with other atoms, notably including carbon. This property makes organofluorine compounds some of the most stable and inert substances known to man. Fluorine's special status also stems from the 'fluorine factor', the ability of this little atom to fine-tune the chemical properties of an entire molecule. For example, replacing hydrogen with fluorine can protect drugs from degradation by metabolic enzymes, extending their active lifetimes inside the body.
Or the introduced fluorine can alter a molecule's shape so that it binds better to its target protein. Such precise chemical tinkering can now be carried out in pharmaceutical labs using an array of safe, commercially-available fluorinating agents, or the tricky transformations can simply be out-sourced to someone else.
Most of us also have fluorine to thank for our beaming smiles. The cavity-fighting agents in toothpaste are inorganic fluorides such as sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate. Fluoride not only decreases the amount of enamel-dissolving acid produced by plaque bacteria, but aids in the tooth rebuilding process, insinuating itself into the enamel to form an even harder surface which resists future attack. And the list of medical applications doesn't stop there.
Being put to sleep is a little bit less worrisome thanks to fluorinated anaesthetics such as isoflurane and desflurane, which replaced flammable and explosive alternatives such as diethyl ether and chloroform. Fluorocarbons are also one of the leading candidates in development as artificial blood, as oxygen is more soluble in these materials than most other solvents.
And radioactive fluorine 18 F rather than the naturally-occurring 19 F is a key ingredient in positron emission tomography or PET , a whole-body imaging technique that allows cancerous tumours to be discovered before they spread. Fluorochemicals are also a mainstay of industry. One of the most famous is the polymer polytetrafluoroethylene, better known as Teflon, which holds the title of world's most slippery solid. Highly thermostable and water proof, it's used as a coating for pots and pans, in baking sprays, and to repel stains on furniture and carpets.
Heating and stretching transforms Teflon into Gore-tex, the porous membrane of sportswear fame. Gore-tex's pores are small enough to keep water droplets out, while allowing water vapour that is, sweat to escape. So you can run on a rainy day, and still stay dry. Fluorine plays another important role in keeping you cool, as air-conditioning and household refrigeration units run on energy-efficient fluorocarbon fluids. And fluorine's uses are not limited to earth.
When astronauts jet off into space they put their trust in fluoroelastomers, a type of fluorinated rubber. Fashioned into O-rings and other sealing devices, these materials ensure that aircraft remain leak-free even under extreme conditions of heat and cold.
And when accidents do happen, space travellers can rely on fluorocarbon-based fire extinguishers to put the flames out. Fluorine has long been known as the 'tiger of chemistry'.
And while the element certainly retains its wild side, we can reasonably claim to have tamed it. As only a handful of naturally-occurring organofluorine compounds have ever been discovered, some might argue that we now make better use of fluorine than even Nature herself.
So Teflon is acknowledged as the world's most slippery thing and I bet there are one or two politicians knocking around who are thanking fluorine for that. Thank you also to Kira Weismann from Zaarland University in Germany. Next week. I cannot imagine that this is all someone would be saying if they were unfortunate enough to be stricken with the disease of the same name.
The ouch-ouch disease. The disease results from excessive cadmium poisoning and was first reported in a small town about miles north west of Tokyo.
Rice grown in cadmium contaminated soils had more than 10 times the cadmium content than normal rice. The ouch-ouch-ness of this disease resulted from weak and brittle bones subject to collapse due to high porosity. And you can find out about the ouch-ouch factor with Steve Mylon when he uncovers the story of cadmium on next week's Chemistry in Its Element. I'm Chris Smith, thank you for listening and goodbye. Chemistry in its element is brought to you by the Royal Society of Chemistry and produced by thenakedscientists.
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We welcome your feedback. Visual Elements images and videos © Murray Robertson Data W. Haynes, ed. Version 1. Coursey, D. Schwab, J. Tsai, and R. Dragoset, Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions version 4. Cottrell, The Strengths of Chemical Bonds , Butterworth, London, Periodic Table of Videos , accessed December Supply risk data Derived in part from material provided by the British Geological Survey © NERC.
History text Elements , , and © John Emsley Elements , , and © Royal Society of Chemistry Podcasts Produced by The Naked Scientists. Periodic Table of Videos Created by video journalist Brady Haran working with chemists at The University of Nottingham. Download our free Periodic Table app for mobile phones and tablets. Explore all elements. A Aluminium Argon Arsenic Antimony Astatine Actinium Americium. B Beryllium Boron Bromine Barium Bismuth Berkelium Bohrium.
C Carbon Chlorine Calcium Chromium Cobalt Copper Cadmium Caesium Cerium Curium Californium Copernicium. D Dysprosium Dubnium Darmstadtium. E Europium Erbium Einsteinium. F Fluorine Francium Fermium Flerovium. G Gallium Germanium Gadolinium Gold. H Hydrogen Helium Holmium Hafnium Hassium. I Iron Indium Iodine Iridium.
K Krypton. L Lithium Lanthanum Lutetium Lead Lawrencium Livermorium. M Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Mercury Mendelevium Meitnerium Moscovium. N Nitrogen Neon Nickel Niobium Neodymium Neptunium Nobelium Nihonium. O Oxygen Osmium Oganesson. P Phosphorus Potassium Palladium Praseodymium Promethium Platinum Polonium Protactinium Plutonium. R Rubidium Ruthenium Rhodium Rhenium Radon Radium Rutherfordium Roentgenium. S Sodium Silicon Sulfur Scandium Selenium Strontium Silver Samarium Seaborgium.
T Titanium Technetium Tin Tellurium Terbium Thulium Tantalum Tungsten Thallium Thorium Tennessine. U Uranium. V Vanadium. X Xenon. Y Yttrium Ytterbium. Z Zinc Zirconium. org Periodic Table. Membership Become a member Connect with others Supporting individuals Supporting organisations Manage my membership.
Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Youtube. Discovery date. Discovered by. Origin of the name. The name is derived form the Latin 'fluere', meaning to flow. Melting point.
Boiling point. Atomic number. Relative atomic mass. State at 20°C. Key isotopes. Electron configuration. CAS number. ChemSpider ID. ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database. Atomic radius, non-bonded Å. Covalent radius Å. Electronegativity Pauling scale. Covalent bond. Found in. Common oxidation states. Atomic mass. Half life. Mode of decay. Relative supply risk. Crustal abundance ppm. Top 3 producers. Top 3 reserve holders. In fact, the table mentioned below is the perfect information box Which gives you every single detail about the Fluorine element in Periodic table.
See how this Interactive Periodic Table helps you. Fluorine element is in group 17 and period 2 of the Periodic table. Fluorine is the p-block element and it belongs to halogens group. Click on above elements in Periodic table to see their information or Visit Interactive Periodic Table which shows names, symbol, atomic mass, electron configuration, electrons arrangement, etc. of all the elements. Click on above elements in Periodic table to see their information.
Do you know, how many electrons can be accommodated in the first shell, second shell, third shell, fourth shell, etc…? This electron arrangement indicates that the outermost orbit of fluorine element F has 7 electrons. From the Bohr model, it can be found that the number of orbits or shells in fluorine is 2.
Hence, as fluorine has 2 orbits, it lies in period 2 of the Periodic table. The simple answer: The elements will lie in the s, p, d or f block will completely depend upon the subshell in which the last electron will enter. Let me tell you how this Interactive Periodic Table will help you in your studies.
Allotropes Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes. Each allotrope has different physical properties. For more information on the Visual Elements image see the Uses and properties section below. Group A vertical column in the periodic table.
Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell. Period A horizontal row in the periodic table. The atomic number of each element increases by one, reading from left to right.
Block Elements are organised into blocks by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found. These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp s , principal p , diffuse d , and fundamental f. Atomic number The number of protons in an atom.
Electron configuration The arrangements of electrons above the last closed shell noble gas. Melting point The temperature at which the solid—liquid phase change occurs.
Boiling point The temperature at which the liquid—gas phase change occurs. Sublimation The transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through a liquid phase.
Relative atomic mass The mass of an atom relative to that of carbon This is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Where more than one isotope exists, the value given is the abundance weighted average. Isotopes Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. CAS number The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion arising from different languages and naming systems.
Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements. This is where the artist explains his interpretation of the element and the science behind the picture.
Where the element is most commonly found in nature, and how it is sourced commercially. Atomic radius, non-bonded Half of the distance between two unbonded atoms of the same element when the electrostatic forces are balanced. These values were determined using several different methods. Covalent radius Half of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond. Values are given for typical oxidation number and coordination. Electron affinity The energy released when an electron is added to the neutral atom and a negative ion is formed.
Electronegativity Pauling scale The tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself, expressed on a relative scale. First ionisation energy The minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state. The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom.
It is defined as being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic. Uncombined elements have an oxidation state of 0. The sum of the oxidation states within a compound or ion must equal the overall charge. Data for this section been provided by the British Geological Survey. An integrated supply risk index from 1 very low risk to 10 very high risk. This is calculated by combining the scores for crustal abundance, reserve distribution, production concentration, substitutability, recycling rate and political stability scores.
The percentage of a commodity which is recycled. A higher recycling rate may reduce risk to supply. The availability of suitable substitutes for a given commodity. The percentage of an element produced in the top producing country. The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply.
The percentage of the world reserves located in the country with the largest reserves. A percentile rank for the political stability of the top producing country, derived from World Bank governance indicators. A percentile rank for the political stability of the country with the largest reserves, derived from World Bank governance indicators.
Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of a kilogram of a substance by 1 K. A measure of the stiffness of a substance. It provides a measure of how difficult it is to extend a material, with a value given by the ratio of tensile strength to tensile strain.
A measure of how difficult it is to deform a material. It is given by the ratio of the shear stress to the shear strain. A measure of how difficult it is to compress a substance. It is given by the ratio of the pressure on a body to the fractional decrease in volume. A measure of the propensity of a substance to evaporate. It is defined as the equilibrium pressure exerted by the gas produced above a substance in a closed system.
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Jump to main content. Periodic Table. Home History Alchemy Podcast Video Trends. Glossary Allotropes Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes. Discovery date Discovered by Henri Moissan Origin of the name The name is derived form the Latin 'fluere', meaning to flow Allotropes F 2. Glossary Group A vertical column in the periodic table. Fact box. Glossary Image explanation Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements.
Appearance The description of the element in its natural form. Biological role The role of the element in humans, animals and plants. Natural abundance Where the element is most commonly found in nature, and how it is sourced commercially. Uses and properties. Image explanation. The image reflects the highly reactive nature of the element. A very pale yellow-green, dangerously reactive gas. It is the most reactive of all the elements and quickly attacks all metals.
Steel wool bursts into flames when exposed to fluorine. There was no commercial production of fluorine until the Second World War, when the development of the atom bomb, and other nuclear energy projects, made it necessary to produce large quantities. Before this, fluorine salts, known as fluorides, were for a long time used in welding and for frosting glass.
The element is used to make uranium hexafluoride, needed by the nuclear power industry to separate uranium isotopes. It is also used to make sulfur hexafluoride, the insulating gas for high-power electricity transformers. In fact, fluorine is used in many fluorochemicals, including solvents and high-temperature plastics, such as Teflon poly tetrafluoroethene , PTFE. Teflon is well known for its non-stick properties and is used in frying pans.
They are now banned. Biological role. Fluoride is an essential ion for animals, strengthening teeth and bones. It is added to drinking water in some areas. The presence of fluorides below 2 parts per million in drinking water is believed to prevent dental cavities. Fluoride is also added to toothpaste.
AdEveryone Knows Someone Who's Met Online. Join Here, Browse For Free. Everyone Know Someone Who's Met Online. Start Now and Browse for blogger.com has been visited by 10K+ users in the past month AdFind Your Special Someone Online. Choose the Right Dating Site & Start Now! Find Out Which Dating Sites are Easiest to Use & Most Effective. Find a Date Now! AdFind Love With the Help Of Top 5 Dating Sites. Make a Year to Remember! Online Dating Has Already Changed The Lives of Millions of People. Join blogger.com has been visited by 10K+ users in the past monthMillions of Users · Dating Sites Comparison · Customer Support · Meet Singles Like YouService catalog: Video Chat, See Profiles, Find Singles Nearby, Match with Locals Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists at standard conditions as a highly toxic, pale yellow diatomic gas. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive, as it reacts with all other elements except for argon, neon, See more · In gaseous state, fluorine is a light pale-yellow color gas, while in a liquid state it is a bright yellow color gas. Atomic mass of fluorine is u, which makes it the lightest ... read more
To achieve this feat, Moissan not only had to contend with HF - the preferred electrolyte in such experiments - but fluorine itself, a violently reactive gas. These include ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. The cavity-fighting agents in toothpaste are inorganic fluorides such as sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate. Hoffman, Robert; Nelson, Lewis; Howland, Mary; Lewin, Neal; Flomenbaum, Neal; Goldfrank, Lewis The whole world has admired the great experimental skill with which you have studied that savage beast among the elements. Belgian chemist Paulin Louyet and French chemist Jérôme Nicklès died.Fluorine's special status also stems from the 'fluorine factor', the ability of this little atom to fine-tune the chemical element online dating profile fluorine of an entire molecule. in and now ubiquitous in developed countries, alongside fluoridated mouthwashes, gels, foams, and varnishes. Fluorine occurs naturally in the earth's crust where it can be found in rocks, coal and clay. Biological role. If you are in any doubt, please ask.